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A few weeks ago I got into an interesting discussion about the potential harm caused by unnumbered IPv4/IPv6 interfaces.

Ignoring for the moment the vendor-specific or media-specific implementation details, these two arguments usually pop up in the first 100 milliseconds (assuming engineers involved in the discussion have some hands-on operational experience):

The first argument is obviously valid in IPv4 world and no longer true in IPv6 world – link-local addresses are always available on IPv6 interface and you can use them to do hop-by-hop telnet/SSH (admittedly in a bit clunky way but nonetheless). However, do keep in mind that if you use any centralized authentication/authorization scheme and the routing protocol breaks, you won’t get into the box no matter what.

Speaking of traceroute: it might give you wrong interface information any time you happen to have asymmetrical routing or multiple equal-cost paths. Without any additional configuration, in most implementations the source IP address in the ICMP TTL exceeded reply is the IP address of the interface – the interface the router would use to reach the prober – and not the IP address of the interface through which the probe was received. Is there a box out there that’s smarter than this? I would love to hear about it!

2016-01-12: RFC 5837 specifies ICMP extensions that would make ICMP replies to traceroute probes way more useful (and accurate). However, it looks like nobody implemented it in DbDk FF54 Women Leatherette Lace Up High Top Sneaker Blue sLQzBp

Are there any other reasons to avoid unnumbered interfaces (vendor X doesn’t implement them on interface type Y doesn’t count)? Please write a comment!

By Ivan Pepelnjak

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I would be happy if I could run my datacenter with only IPv6 link-local addresses (on my transport links) and MP-BGP. IPv4 could be routed just by reusing the next-hop information coming from v6. Although that would require BGP to advertise next-hop-interface instead of next-hop (or the advertiser to send a dummy IP address and the receiver assume the next-hop-interface is the same interface where the peer is located).Regarding traceroute, maybe it's time to come with a better set of tools to troubleshoot the network...

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You can run IPv6-only control plane with RFC 5549. Here's how Cumulus implemented it:

A separate but related concern is that a lot of this data is owned by large Internet companies (GAFA). Some, like Facebook, have proven to be a less than perfect steward of it. Nonetheless, this data provides them an unfair advantage in the race to produce ever more powerful AI.

Against those issues, an emerging theme is to think of the blockchain as a possible foil against the risks of AI , as well as a way for others, outside of GAFA, to produce great AI. Crypto economics are viewed as a way to incentivize individuals to provide their personal data and for machine learning engineers to build models by processing this data anonymously. It all remains very experimental, but some early marketplaces and networks are emerging

The 2018 Landscape

Without further ado, here’s our 2018 landscape.

Quite semantic note: buzz terms come and go. Fewer people speak about “Big Data”, many more about “AI”, often to described the same reality. Consequently, we have slightly rebranded our 2018 landscape: it is now called the “Big Data AI” landscape!

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(The image is high-res and should lend itself to zooming in well, including on mobile)

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This year, my FirstMark colleague Cattior Womens Leather Slippers Summer Open Toe Slipper Purple 1AwvJ7
provided immense help with the landscape.

We’ve detailed some of our methodology in the notes to this post. Thoughts and suggestions welcome – please use the comment section to this post.

Who’s in, who’s out

On the exit front, the last year (since our 2017 landscape) has seen solid, but not extraordinarily strong.

A few key companies appearing on the landscape went public, in particular Cloudera, MongoDB Pivotal and Zuora. Others are preparing to go out at the time of this writing, such as Elastic.

Some notable acquisitions also occurred, including in particular Mulesoft (acquired by Salesforce post-IPO, for $6.5B), Flatiron Health (acquired by Roched for $2.1B), Appnexus (acquired by ATT for $1.6B), Syncsort and Vision Solutions (acquired for $1.2B by Centerbridge Partners), Moat (acquired by Oracle for $850M), Integral Ad Science (acquired by Vista Equity Partners for $850M), eVestment (acquired by NASDAQ for $705M) and Kensho (acquired by SP Global for $550M). It is worth noting that, other than Mulesoft, all those companies are headquartered on the East Coast (New York, Boston and Atlanta).

Many other companies were also acquired for smaller amounts: Gigya (SAP), Blue River Technology (Deere Co), CoreOS (Red Hat), Guavus (Thales), Lattice Data (Apple), Socrata (Tyler Technologies) and PracticeFusion (AllScripts).


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